As I noted in a comment earlier, one of my political goals would be
1) equality of opportunity,
2) NOT equality of outcomes,
3) adequate support for those who are struggling, funded by money from those who have been most successful.
But how do we get there? I think that first we have to accept the concept of Enough.
When you have income, what do you spend it on? First, you need food on the table, a roof over your head, and clothes on your back. Once you have funded that, you start on other necessities: e.g. transportation, information, etc. (We can have another discussion about what is and is not a necessity.) And you put money aside, both to deal with emergencies and to fund a tolerable retirement. Also, you start to provide some luxuries to make life more comfortable.
At some point, you’ve got all the necessities covered. And as for luxuries, you are essentially spending as much as you can on luxuries that you have time to actually use. At that point, you have Enough. There is no economic reason* to make more – we’ve already stipulated that you can’t usefully spend any more. So why do so?
I suggest that the only reason to make more is to demonstrate how wonderful/accomplished/important you are to folks who have no clue about the actual, objective, value of what you do. To put it bluntly, incomes beyond that point are nothing but a dick measuring contest. (Of course, some people may consider that to be necessary to their self-image. Tough.)
At that point, there’s no reason not to put the marginal tax rates at close to 100%. You may have a philosophical objection to the idea, but you don’t have a personal economic cause to complain. And that provides funding for a safety net for those who are still struggling with the basic necessities.
* Stipulate that there will be those who end up making more as a side effect of doing the things that they love doing. I would say that Warren Buffet appears to fall into that category. He’s not making ever more money for the sake of the money/status, witness the fact that he isn’t frittering it away on flashy luxuries.